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zkv, 2008-11-21 22:04
Markup refactored


Configuration file for the core module.

BNF like notation of the basic Syntax


  option   : NAME = VALUE
  merge    : NAME += VALUE
  NAME     : modulename.key
  VALUE    : ( <string> | <integer> | <boolean> | <array> | VALUE [ + VALUE ]*)
  <string> : "text" 
  <integer>: digit*
  <boolean>: ( "enable" | "disable" )
  <array>  : "(" [ <string> "=>" ] <value> [, [ <string> "=>" ] <value> ]* ")" 
  INCLUDE  : "include" VALUE
  INCLUDE_SHELL : "include_shell" STRING_VALUE

Example


  # default document-root
  server.document-root = "/var/www/example.org/pages/" 

  # TCP port
  server.port = 80

  # selecting modules
  server.modules = ( "mod_access", "mod_rewrite" )

  # variables, computed when config is read.
  var.mymodule = "foo" 
  server.modules += ( "mod_" + var.mymodule )
  # var.PID is initialised to the pid of lighttpd before config is parsed

  # include, relative to dirname of main config file
  include "mime.types.conf" 

  # read configuration from output of a command
  include_shell "/usr/local/bin/confmimetype /etc/mime.types" 

Conditional Configuration

Most options can be configured conditionally by using the following syntax (including nesting).

  <field> <operator> <value> {
    ...
    <field> <operator> <value> {
      ... nesting: match only when parent match
    }
  }
  else <field> <operator> <value> {
    ... the "else if" block
  }

where <field> is one of one of the following:

  • $HTTP["cookie"] - match on cookie
  • $HTTP["host"] - match on host
  • $HTTP["useragent"] - match on useragent
  • $HTTP["referer"] - match on referer
  • $HTTP["url"] - match on url. If there are nested blocks, this must be the most inner block.
  • $HTTP["querystring"] - match on querystring, eg, after the ? in this type url: index.php?module=images..
  • $HTTP["remoteip"] - match on the remote IP or a remote Network (Warning: doesn't work with IPv6 enabled)
  • $HTTP["scheme"] (Introduced in version 1.4.19) - match on the scheme used by the incoming connection. This is either "http" or "https".
  • $SERVER["socket"] - match on socket. Value must be on the format "ip:port", where ip is an IP address(optional) and port a port number. Only equal match (==) is supported. It also binds the daemon to this socket. Use this if you want to do IP/port-based virtual hosts.
  • $PHYSICAL["path"] (Introduced in version 1.5.0) - match on the mapped physical path of the file / cgi script to be served.
  • $PHYSICAL["existing-path"] (Introduced in version 1.5.0) - match on the mapped physical path of the file / cgi script to be served only if such a file exists on the local filesystem.

<operator> is one of:

  • == string equal match
  • != string not equal match
  • =~ perl style regular expression match
  • !~ perl style regular expression not match

and <value> is either a quoted ("") literal string or regular expression.

Example:


  # disable directory-listings for /download/*
  dir-listing.activate = "enable" 
  $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/download/" {
    dir-listing.activate = "disable" 
  }

  # handle virtual hosting
  # map all domains of a top-level-domain to a single document-root
  $HTTP["host"] =~ "(^|\.)example\.org$" {
    server.document-root = "/var/www/htdocs/example.org/pages/" 
  }

  # multiple sockets
  $SERVER["socket"] == "127.0.0.1:81" {
    server.document-root = "..." 
  }

  $SERVER["socket"] == "127.0.0.1:443" {
    ssl.pemfile = "/var/www/certs/localhost.pem" 
    ssl.engine = "enable" 

    server.document-root = "/var/www/htdocs/secure.example.org/pages/" 
  }

  # deny access for all googlebot
  $HTTP["useragent"] =~ "Google" {
    url.access-deny = ( "" )
  }

  # deny access for all image stealers (anti-hotlinking for images)
  $HTTP["referer"] !~ "^($|http://www\.example\.org)" {
    url.access-deny = ( ".jpg", ".jpeg", ".png" )
  }

  # deny the access to www.example.org to all user which 
  # are not in the 10.0.0.0/8 network
  $HTTP["host"] == "www.example.org" {
    $HTTP["remoteip"] != "10.0.0.0/8" {
     url.access-deny = ( "" )
    }
  }

  # Allow only 200.19.1.5 and 210.45.2.7 to
  # have access to www.example.org/admin/
  $HTTP["host"] == "www.example.org" {
    #!~ is a perl style regular expression not match
    $HTTP["remoteip"] !~ "^(200\.19\.1\.5|210\.45\.2\.7)$" {
      $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/admin/" {
        url.access-deny = ( "" )
      }
    }
  }

Troubleshooting

If you're not running on the default port, $HTTP["host"] will have the port appended to it, so regular expressions ending in $ (without allowing for a port) won't match.
To match with or without a port, change

"(^|\\.)example\\.org$"
to
"(^|\\.)example\\.org(\\:[0-9]*)?$"

Advanced usage

Check the blog: http://blog.lighttpd.net/articles/2005/05/07/advanced-configuration-in-up-upcoming-1-4-x

Using variables

You can set your own variables in the configuration to simplify your config.


  var.basedir = "/home/www/servers/" 
  $HTTP["host"] == "www.example.org" {
     server.name = "www.example.org" 
     include "incl-base.conf" 
  }

In incl-base.conf:


  server.document-root = basedir + server.name + "/pages/" 
  accesslog.filename   = basedir + server.name + "/logs/access.log" 

You can also use environment variables or the default variables var.PID and var.CWD:


  var.basedir = env.LIGHTTPDBASE

  $HTTP["host"] == "www.example.org" {
     server.name = "www.example.org" 
     include "incl-base.conf" 
     include "incl-fastcgi.conf" 
  }

In incl-fastcgi.conf:


  fastcgi.server = ( ... => ((
     "socket" => basedir + server.name + "/tmp/fastcgi-" + PID + ".sock" 
  )) )

Or like the lighttpd script for rails does:


  var.basedir = var.CWD
  server.document-root = basedir + "/public/" 

Some useful things that can NOT be done in lighttpd config (you need to create a script in a real programming language and than use include_shell):


  # testing if a variable has been set is NOT possible
  var.not_sure_if_it_exists == undefined { ... set to default value ... }

  # removing from arrays is NOT possible
  server.modules -= ( "mod_idontwantyou" )

Global context


  global {
    ...
  }

You don't need it in the main configuration file.
But you might have difficulty setting a server wide configuration inside a included-file from conditionals.

Example

In lighttpd.conf:


  server.modules = ()
  $HTTP["host"] == "www.example.org" {
    include "incl-php.conf" 
  }

In incl-php.conf:


  global {
    server.modules += ("mod_fastcgi")
    static-file.exclude-extensions += (".php")
  }
  fastcgi.server = "..." 

Options

All Configuration Options can be found at: http://trac.lighttpd.net/trac/wiki/Docs%3AConfigurationOptions

Updated by zkv almost 11 years ago · 28 revisions